A small American mining company's claim of (a) making the richest gold strike on earth was a hoax (b) without precedent in the history of mining, an independent consulting company has found. American Minerals Ltd. (c) tampered with laboratory samples to (d) have supported its claim.


hoax /hoʊks/ : a plan to deceive someone

precedent /ˈpres.ə.dent: the way that something has been done in the past that therefore shows that it is the correct way

tamper with /ˈtæm.pɚ:  to touch or make changes to something that you should not, usually without enough knowledge of how it works or when you are trying to damage it

strike gold : to make large profits or to become rich


 <答え> (d)

「American Minerals Ltd. という会社は、自らの主張を正当化するため、実験用サンプルに手を加えていた。」という意味なので、(d)の時制は完了形である必要はない。




The team reported the discovery of (a) what may be fossils of microbes in the interior of a meteorite, suggesting that (b) primitive lives existed on Mars (c) more than 3.5 billion years ago. This discovery could alter (d) the way we think about human existence and our world.


microbe  /ˈmaɪ.krəʊb/ : a very small living thing, especially one that causes diesease, that can only be seen with a microscope

primitive /ˈprɪm.ɪ.tɪv: relating to human society at a very early stage of development, with people living in a simple way without machines or a writing system


<答え> (b)

原始的な生命体=primitive life





(a) A law permitting voluntary euthanasia came into force in Australia's Northern Territory on Monday, but (b) legal challenges see likely to prevent (c) any terminally ill people from having their lives ended (d) through its provision.


voluntary euthanasia 《成句》本人の自由意志による安楽死

legal challenges see (are) likely to prevent      legal challenges=「法的な挑戦」とは法による訴え、つまり訴訟を指す。


<答え>  (d)


(○)under its provisions